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CST: 25/08/2019 04:16:45   

Spark Energy, Inc. Reports Fourth Quarter and Full Year 2018 Financial Results

173 Days ago

HOUSTON, March 04, 2019 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Spark Energy, Inc. ("Spark" or the "Company") (NASDAQ: SPKE), an independent retail energy services company, today reported financial results for the year ended December 31, 2018.

Key Business Highlights

  • Recorded $20.1 million in Adjusted EBITDA, $50.2 million in Retail Gross Margin, and $15.3 million in Net Loss for the fourth quarter 2018
  • Recorded $70.7 million in Adjusted EBITDA, $185.1 million in Retail Gross Margin, and $14.4 million in Net Loss for the year ended 2018
  • Total RCE count of 908,000 as of December 31, 2018
  • Average monthly attrition of 4.7% for the year ended December 31, 2018
  • Closed three acquisitions in 2018
  • Brand consolidation and other synergies on track for $22 million in run-rate G&A savings
  • Increased commitments on the senior credit facility to $217.5 million

“We have significantly improved the health and stability of the business in 2018, strengthened our balance sheet, and positioned Spark to grow in 2019 and beyond,” said Nathan Kroeker, Spark Energy’s President and Chief Executive Officer. "Despite a challenging first quarter, we achieved our key objectives for the year, which included reducing our exposure to extreme weather risk, simplifying our brands and operating footprint, refocusing on growing our mass market business, and delivering on significant G&A savings across the organization. We also executed three tuck-in acquisitions that required minimal integration and had an immediate positive impact to our Adjusted EBITDA.

“Looking ahead, 2019 is already off to a good start. Our hedging strategy performed very well through the first half of the winter. We continue to shed larger, lower margin C&I customers, while the last of the full year hedges we put on during 2018's Bomb Cyclone rolled off in December. As a result, we expect our electricity unit margins to increase steadily over the next couple of years. We continue to focus on our mass market book while realizing the remaining cost savings we first targeted in 2017.

“We recently upsized our credit facility to $217.5 million, which gives us the flexibility to continue to be opportunistic on the M&A front. When you combine this with our disciplined approach to unit margin improvement and anticipated cost savings, we have a lot to look forward to.”

Summary Fourth Quarter 2018 Financial Results

For the quarter ended December 31, 2018, Spark reported Adjusted EBITDA of $20.1 million compared to Adjusted EBITDA of $28.9 million for the quarter ended December 31, 2017. The decrease was primarily due to lower Retail Gross Margin partially offset by decreased spending on G&A and Customer Acquisition Costs.

For the quarter ended December 31, 2018, Spark reported Retail Gross Margin of $50.2 million compared to Retail Gross Margin of $66.2 million for the quarter ended December 31, 2017. The decrease was due to lower electricity unit margins and lower natural gas volumes.

Net loss for the quarter ended December 31, 2018, was $15.3 million compared to net income of $46.3 million for the quarter ended December 31, 2017, primarily due to a decrease in the non-cash mark-to-market position of our hedging book, the decrease in Retail Gross Margin detailed above, and the inclusion in 2017 of a reduction in our Tax Receivable Agreement (TRA) liability, offset by lower income tax expense in 2018 due to the Tax Law change.

Summary Full Year 2018 Financial Results

For the year ended December 31, 2018, Spark reported Adjusted EBITDA of $70.7 million compared to Adjusted EBITDA of $102.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. The decrease was primarily due to lower Retail Gross Margin due to full year financial impacts of the extreme weather events of the first quarter of 2018, as well as increased G&A, partially offset by a reduction in Customer Acquisition Costs.

For the year ended December 31, 2018, Spark reported Retail Gross Margin of $185.1 million compared to Retail Gross Margin of $224.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. The decrease was primarily due to lower electricity unit margins caused by the increase in retail costs of goods sold from full year impacts of the extreme weather experienced in the first quarter of 2018 and other factors, along with a reduction in natural gas volumes, partially offset by an increase in electric volumes.

Net loss for the year ended December 31, 2018, was $14.4 million compared to net income of $75.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2017, primarily due to a decrease in a non-cash mark-to-market position of our hedging book, the decrease in Retail Gross Margin detailed above, and the inclusion in 2017 of a reduction in our TRA liability, offset by lower income tax expense in 2018 due to the Tax Law change.

Liquidity and Capital Resources

($ in thousands) December 31, 2018
Cash and cash equivalents $ 41,002
Senior Credit Facility Availability 4,360
Subordinated Debt Availability (1) $ 15,000
Total Liquidity $ 60,362

(1)   The availability of the Subordinated Debt Facility is dependent on our Founder's financial position and ability to lend.

On January 28, 2019 the Company and Co-Borrowers exercised the accordion feature of the Company's Senior Credit Facility, bringing total commitments under the Senior Credit Facility to $217.5 million.

Dividend

Spark’s Board of Directors declared quarterly dividends of $0.18125 per share of Class A common stock payable on March 15, 2019, and $0.546875 per share of Series A Preferred Stock payable on April 15, 2019.

Conference Call and Webcast

Spark will host a conference call to discuss fourth quarter and full year 2018 results on Monday, March 4, 2019, at 9:00 AM Central Time (10:00 AM Eastern).

A live webcast of the conference call can be accessed from the Events & Presentations page of the Spark Energy Investor Relations website at https://ir.sparkenergy.com/events-and-presentations. An archived replay of the webcast will be available for twelve months following the live presentation.

About Spark Energy, Inc.

Spark Energy, Inc. is an established and growing independent retail energy services company founded in 1999 that provides residential and commercial customers in competitive markets across the United States with an alternative choice for their natural gas and electricity. Headquartered in Houston, Texas, Spark currently operates in 19 states and serves 94 utility territories. Spark offers its customers a variety of product and service choices, including stable and predictable energy costs and green product alternatives.

We use our website as a means of disclosing material non-public information and for complying with our disclosure obligations under Regulation FD. Investors should note that new materials, including press releases, updated investor presentations, and financial and other filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission are posted on the Spark Energy Investor Relations website at ir.sparkenergy.com. Investors are urged to monitor our website regularly for information and updates about the Company.

Cautionary Note Regarding Forward Looking Statements

This earnings release contains forward-looking statements that are subject to a number of risks and uncertainties, many of which are beyond our control. These forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”) and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”) can be identified by the use of forward-looking terminology including “may,” “should,” “likely,” “will,” “believe,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “continue,” “plan,” “intend,” “projects,” or other similar words. All statements, other than statements of historical fact included in this earnings release, regarding strategy, future operations, financial position, estimated revenues and losses, projected costs, prospects, plans, objectives and beliefs of management are forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements appear in a number of places in this earnings release and may include statements about business strategy and prospects for growth, customer acquisition costs, ability to pay cash dividends, cash flow generation and liquidity, availability of terms of capital, competition and government regulation and general economic conditions. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in such forward-looking statements are reasonable, we cannot give any assurance that such expectations will prove correct.

The forward-looking statements in this earnings release and the related earnings call are subject to risks and uncertainties. Important factors that could cause actual results to materially differ from those projected in the forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to:

  • changes in commodity prices
  • the sufficiency of risk management and hedging policies and practices;
  • the impact of extreme and unpredictable weather conditions, including hurricanes and other natural disasters;
  • federal, state and local regulation, including the industry's ability to address or adapt to potentially restrictive new regulations that may be enacted by public utility commissions;
  • our ability to borrow funds and access credit markets;
  • restrictions in our debt agreements and collateral requirements;
  • credit risk with respect to suppliers and customers;
  • changes in costs to acquire customers and actual attrition rates;
  • accuracy of billing systems;
  • ability to successfully identify, complete, and efficiently integrate acquisitions into our operations;
  • significant changes in, or new changes by, the ISOs in the regions we operate;
  • competition; and
  • the “Risk Factors” in our latest Annual Report on Form 10-K, and in our quarterly reports, other public filings and press releases.

All forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this earnings release. Unless required by law, we disclaim any obligation to publicly update or revise these statements whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. It is not possible for us to predict all risks, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on the business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements.

further discussion.


SPARK ENERGY, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
 AS OF DECEMBER 31, 2018 AND DECEMBER 31, 2017
(in thousands)
(unaudited)

  December 31, 2018     December 31, 2017
Assets        
Current assets:        
Cash and cash equivalents $ 41,002       $ 29,419  
Restricted cash 8,636        
Accounts receivable, net of allowance for doubtful accounts of $3,353 and $4,023 as of December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively 150,866       158,814  
Accounts receivable—affiliates 2,558       3,661  
Inventory 3,878       4,470  
Fair value of derivative assets 7,289       31,191  
Customer acquisition costs, net 14,431       22,123  
Customer relationships, net 16,630       18,653  
Deposits 9,226       7,701  
Renewable energy credit asset 25,717       12,839  
Other current assets 11,747       20,706  
Total current assets 291,980       296,738  
Property and equipment, net 4,366       8,275  
Fair value of derivative assets 3,276       3,309  
Customer acquisition costs, net 3,893       6,949  
Customer relationships, net 26,429       34,839  
Deferred tax assets (1) 27,321       21,977  
Goodwill 120,343       120,154  
Other assets 11,130       11,500  
Total Assets (1) $ 488,738       $ 503,741  
Liabilities, Series A Preferred Stock and Stockholders' Equity        
Current liabilities:        
Accounts payable $ 69,631       $ 77,510  
Accounts payable—affiliates 2,464       4,622  
Accrued liabilities 10,004       33,679  
Renewable energy credit liability 42,805       23,477  
Fair value of derivative liabilities 6,478       1,637  
Current portion of Senior Credit Facility       7,500  
Current payable pursuant to tax receivable agreement—affiliates 1,658       5,937  
Current contingent consideration for acquisitions 1,328       4,024  
Current portion of note payable 6,936       13,443  
Other current liabilities 647       2,675  
Total current liabilities 141,951       151,027  
Long-term liabilities:        
Fair value of derivative liabilities 106       492  
Payable pursuant to tax receivable agreement—affiliates 25,917       26,355  
Long-term portion of Senior Credit Facility 129,500       117,750  
Subordinated debt—affiliate 10,000        
Note payable       7,051  
Contingent consideration for acquisitions       626  
Other long-term liabilities 212       172  
Total liabilities 307,686       303,473  
Commitments and contingencies        
Series A Preferred Stock, par value $0.01 per share, 20,000,000 shares authorized, 3,707,256 shares issued and outstanding at December 31, 2018 and 1,704,339 shares issued and outstanding at December 31, 2017

90,758       41,173  
Stockholders' equity:        
Common Stock :        
Class A common stock, par value $0.01 per share, 120,000,000 shares authorized, 14,178,284 issued and 14,078,838 outstanding at December 31, 2018 and 13,235,082 issued and 13,135,636 outstanding at December 31, 2017 142       132  
Class B common stock, par value $0.01 per share, 60,000,000 shares authorized, 20,800,000 issued and outstanding at December 31, 2018 and 21,485,126 issued and outstanding at December 31, 2017 209       216  
Additional paid-in capital (1) 46,157       47,811  
Accumulated other comprehensive (loss)/income 2       (11 )
Retained (deficit) earnings (1) 1,307       11,399  
Treasury stock, at cost, 99,446 shares at December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017
(2,011 )     (2,011 )
Total stockholders' equity (1) 45,806       57,536  
Non-controlling interest in Spark HoldCo, LLC (1) 44,488       101,559  
Total equity 90,294       159,095  
  Total Liabilities, Series A Preferred Stock and stockholders' equity $ 488,738       $ 503,741  
  1. 2017 amounts have been adjusted to reflect certain immaterial prior period adjustments related to the allocation of income and recorded book equity balances between non-controlling interests and Spark Energy, Inc. stockholders. Please see our Form 10-K for our audited financial statements and Notes thereto which include a discussion of these immaterial adjustments.
     


SPARK ENERGY, INC.
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS FOR THE YEARS ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016
(in thousands)
(unaudited)

  Year Ended December 31,
  2018   2017   2016
Revenues:          
Retail revenues $ 1,001,417     $ 798,772     $ 547,283  
Net asset optimization revenues (expense) 4,511     (717 )   (586 )
Total revenues 1,005,928     798,055     546,697  
Operating expenses:          
Retail cost of revenues 845,493     552,167     344,944  
General and administrative 111,431     101,127     84,964  
Depreciation and amortization 52,658     42,341     32,788  
Total operating expenses 1,009,582     695,635     462,696  
Operating (loss) income (3,654 )   102,420     84,001  
Other (expense)/income:          
Interest expense (9,410 )   (11,134 )   (8,859 )
Change in tax receivable agreement liability     22,267      
Interest and other income 749     256     957  
Total other expenses (8,661 )   11,389     (7,902 )
(Loss) income before income tax expense (12,315 )   113,809     76,099  
Income tax expense (1) 2,077     38,765     10,426  
Net (loss) income(1) (14,392 )   75,044     65,673  
Less: Net (loss) income attributable to non-controlling interest (1) (13,206 )   55,799     51,229  
Net (loss) income attributable to Spark Energy, Inc. stockholders (1) $ (1,186 )   $ 19,245     $ 14,444  
Less: Dividend on Series A preferred stock 8,109     3,038      
Net (loss) income attributable to stockholders of Class A common stock (9,295 )   16,207     14,444  
Other comprehensive (loss) income, net of tax:          
Currency translation (loss) gain 31     (59 )   41  
Other comprehensive (loss) income 31     (59 )   41  
Comprehensive (loss) income (14,361 )   74,985     65,714  
Less: Comprehensive (loss) income attributable to non-controlling interest (1) (13,188 )   55,762     51,259  
Comprehensive (loss) income attributable to Spark Energy, Inc. stockholders (1) (1,173 )   19,223     14,455  
           
  1. 2017 amounts have been adjusted to reflect certain immaterial prior period adjustments related to the allocation of income and recorded book equity balances between non-controlling interests and Spark Energy, Inc. stockholders. Please see our Form 10-K for our audited financial statements and Notes thereto which include a discussion of these immaterial adjustments.
     
     
     

SPARK ENERGY, INC.
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
FOR THE YEARS ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2018, 2017 AND 2016

(in thousands)
(unaudited)

  Year Ended December 31,
  2018   2017   2016
Cash flows from operating activities:          
Net (loss) income (1) $ (14,392 )   $ 75,044     $ 65,673  
Adjustments to reconcile net (loss) income to net cash flows provided by operating activities:          
Depreciation and amortization expense 51,436     42,666     48,526  
Deferred income taxes (1) (3,970 )   29,821     3,382  
Change in TRA liability 1,433     (22,267 )    
Stock based compensation 5,879     5,058     5,242  
Amortization of deferred financing costs 1,291     1,035     668  
Change in fair value of Earnout liabilities (1,715 )   (7,898 )   (140 )
Accretion on fair value of Earnout liabilities     4,108     5,060  
Excess tax benefit related to restricted stock vesting (101 )   179      
Bad debt expense 10,135     6,550     1,261  
Loss (gain) on derivatives, net 18,170     (5,008 )   (22,407 )
Current period cash settlements on derivatives, net 11,038     (19,598 )   (24,427 )
Accretion of discount to convertible subordinated notes to affiliate     1,004     150  
Earnout Payments     (1,781 )   (843 )
Other (673 )   (5 )   (715 )
Changes in assets and liabilities:          
Decrease (increase) in accounts receivable 2,692     (32,361 )   (12,088 )
Decrease (increase) in accounts receivable—affiliates 859     (1,459 )   (118 )
Decrease (increase) in inventory 674     (718 )   542  
Increase in customer acquisition costs (13,673 )   (25,874 )   (21,907 )
(Increase) decrease in prepaid and other current assets (14,033 )   1,915     71  
(Increase) decrease in other assets (335 )   (465 )   1,321  
Increase in accounts payable and accrued liabilities 10,301     14,831     14,831  
(Decrease) increase in accounts payable—affiliates (2,158 )   51     458  
(Decrease) increase in other current liabilities (3,050 )   (1,210 )   2,364  
Increase (decrease) in other non-current liabilities 42     (1,487 )   46  
Decrease in intangible assets—customer acquisitions (2,161 )        
Net cash provided by operating activities 57,689     62,131     66,950  
Cash flows from investing activities:          
Purchases of property and equipment (1,429 )   (1,704 )   (2,258 )
Cash paid for acquisitions (22,607 )   (75,854 )   (30,129 )
Contribution to equity method investment         (1,102 )
Net cash used in investing activities (24,036 )   (77,558 )   (33,489 )
Cash flows from financing activities:          
Proceeds from issuance of Series A Preferred Stock, net of issuance costs paid 48,490     40,241      
Payment to affiliates for acquisition of customer book (7,129 )        
Borrowings on notes payable 432,300     206,400     79,048  
Payments on notes payable (418,050 )   (152,939 )   (66,652 )
Earnout Payments (1,607 )   (18,418 )   (2,012 )
Payments on the Verde promissory note (13,422 )        
Restricted stock vesting (2,893 )   (3,091 )   (1,183 )
Proceeds from issuance of Class B common stock         13,995  
Proceeds from disgorgement of stockholders short-swing profits 244     1,129     941  
Excess tax benefit related to restricted stock vesting         185  
Payment of Tax Receivable Agreement Liability (6,219 )        
Payment of dividends to Class A common shareholders (9,784 )   (9,519 )   (8,367 )
Payment of distributions to non-controlling unitholders (35,479 )   (33,800 )   (34,930 )
Payment of dividends to Preferred Stock (7,014 )   (2,106 )    
Purchase of Treasury Stock     (2,011 )    
Net cash (used in) provided by financing activities (13,434 )   25,886     (18,975 )
Increase in Cash and cash equivalents and Restricted Cash 20,219     10,459     14,486  
Cash and cash equivalents and Restricted cash—beginning of period 29,419     18,960     4,474  
Cash and cash equivalents and Restricted cash—end of period $ 49,638     $ 29,419     $ 18,960  
  1. 2017 amounts have been adjusted to reflect certain immaterial prior period adjustments related to the allocation of income and recorded book equity balances between non-controlling interests and Spark Energy, Inc. stockholders. Please see our Form 10-K for our audited financial statements and Notes thereto which include a discussion of these immaterial adjustments.



SPARK ENERGY, INC.
OPERATING SEGMENT RESULTS
FOR THE YEARS ENDED December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016
(in thousands, except per unit operating data)
(unaudited)

  Year Ended December 31,
  2018   2017   2016
  (in thousands, except volume and per unit operating data)
Retail Electricity Segment          
Total Revenues $ 863,451     $ 657,566     $ 417,229  
Retail Cost of Revenues 762,771     477,012     286,795  
Less: Net (Losses) Gains on non-trading derivatives, net of cash settlements (23,988 )   22,086     12,298  
Retail Gross Margin —Electricity $ 124,668     $ 158,468     $ 118,136  
Volumes—Electricity (MWhs) 8,630,653     6,755,663     4,170,593  
Retail Gross Margin —Electricity per MWh $ 14.44     $ 23.46     $ 28.33  
           
Retail Natural Gas Segment          
Total Revenues $ 137,966     $ 141,206     $ 130,054  
Retail Cost of Revenues 82,722     75,155     58,149  
Less: Net (Losses) Gains on non-trading derivatives, net of cash settlements (5,197 )   10     7,672  
Retail Gross Margin —Gas $ 60,441     $ 66,041     $ 64,233  
Volumes—Gas (MMBtus) 16,778,393     18,203,684     16,819,713  
Retail Gross Margin —Gas per MMBtu $ 3.60     $ 3.63     $ 3.82  


Reconciliation of GAAP to Non-GAAP Measures

Adjusted EBITDA

We define “Adjusted EBITDA” as EBITDA less (i) customer acquisition costs incurred in the current period, (ii) net gain (loss) on derivative instruments, and (iii) net current period cash settlements on derivative instruments, plus (iv) non-cash compensation expense, and (v) other non-cash and non-recurring operating items. EBITDA is defined as net income (loss) before provision for income taxes, interest expense and depreciation and amortization. We deduct all current period customer acquisition costs (representing spending for organic customer acquisitions) in the Adjusted EBITDA calculation because such costs reflect a cash outlay in the period in which they are incurred, even though we capitalize such costs and amortize them over two years in accordance with our accounting policies. The deduction of current period customer acquisition costs is consistent with how we manage our business, but the comparability of Adjusted EBITDA between periods may be affected by varying levels of customer acquisition costs. For example, our Adjusted EBITDA is lower in years of customer growth reflecting larger customer acquisition spending. We do not deduct the cost of customer acquisitions through acquisitions of business or portfolios of customers in calculated Adjusted EBITDA. We deduct our net gains (losses) on derivative instruments, excluding current period cash settlements, from the Adjusted EBITDA calculation in order to remove the non-cash impact of net gains and losses on derivative instruments. We also deduct non-cash compensation expense as a result of restricted stock units that are issued under our long-term incentive plan.

We believe that the presentation of Adjusted EBITDA provides information useful to investors in assessing our liquidity and financial condition and results of operations and that Adjusted EBITDA is also useful to investors as a financial indicator of our ability to incur and service debt, pay dividends and fund capital expenditures. Adjusted EBITDA is a supplemental financial measure that management and external users of our condensed consolidated financial statements, such as industry analysts, investors, commercial banks and rating agencies, use to assess the following:

  • our operating performance as compared to other publicly traded companies in the retail energy industry, without regard to financing methods, capital structure or historical cost basis;
  • the ability of our assets to generate earnings sufficient to support our proposed cash dividends; and
  • our ability to fund capital expenditures (including customer acquisition costs) and incur and service debt.

Retail Gross Margin

We define retail gross margin as operating income (loss) plus (i) depreciation and amortization expenses and (ii) general and administrative expenses, less (i) net asset optimization revenues, (ii) net gains (losses) on non-trading derivative instruments, and (iii) net current period cash settlements on non-trading derivative instruments. Retail gross margin is included as a supplemental disclosure because it is a primary performance measure used by our management to determine the performance of our retail natural gas and electricity business by removing the impacts of our asset optimization activities and net non-cash income (loss) impact of our economic hedging activities. As an indicator of our retail energy business’ operating performance, retail gross margin should not be considered an alternative to, or more meaningful than, operating income (loss), its most directly comparable financial measure calculated and presented in accordance with GAAP.

We believe retail gross margin provides information useful to investors as an indicator of our retail energy business's operating performance.

The GAAP measures most directly comparable to Adjusted EBITDA are net income (loss) and net cash provided by operating activities. The GAAP measure most directly comparable to Retail Gross Margin is operating income (loss). Our non-GAAP financial measures of Adjusted EBITDA and Retail Gross Margin should not be considered as alternatives to net income (loss), net cash provided by operating activities, or operating income (loss). Adjusted EBITDA and Retail Gross Margin are not presentations made in accordance with GAAP and have important limitations as analytical tools. You should not consider Adjusted EBITDA or Retail Gross Margin in isolation or as a substitute for analysis of our results as reported under GAAP. Because Adjusted EBITDA and Retail Gross Margin exclude some, but not all, items that affect net income (loss) and net cash provided by operating activities, and are defined differently by different companies in our industry, our definition of Adjusted EBITDA and Retail Gross Margin may not be comparable to similarly titled measures of other companies.

Management compensates for the limitations of Adjusted EBITDA and Retail Gross Margin as analytical tools by reviewing the comparable GAAP measures, understanding the differences between the measures and incorporating these data points into management’s decision-making process.

The following tables present a reconciliation of Adjusted EBITDA to net income (loss) and net cash provided by operating activities for each of the periods indicated.


APPENDIX TABLES A-1 AND A-2
ADJUSTED EBITDA RECONCILIATIONS
(in thousands)
(unaudited)

  Year Ended December 31,   Quarter Ended December 31,
(in thousands) 2018   2017   2018   2017
Reconciliation of Adjusted EBITDA to Net (Loss) Income:              
Net (loss) income(1) $ (14,392 )   $ 75,044     $ (15,315 )   $ 46,299  
Depreciation and amortization 52,658     42,341     12,861     11,906  
Interest expense 9,410     11,134     2,087     2,374  
Income tax expense(1) 2,077     38,765     1,475     33,500  
EBITDA 49,753     167,284     1,108     94,079  
Less:              
Net, (Losses) gains on derivative instruments (18,170 )   5,008     (16,799 )   39,233  
Net, Cash settlements on derivative instruments (10,587 )   16,309     (4,764 )   (2,499 )
Customer acquisition costs 13,673     25,874     4,724     7,232  
Plus:              
Non-cash compensation expense 5,879     5,058     2,172     1,035  
Change in Tax Receivable Agreement liability (2)     (22,267 )       (22,267 )
Adjusted EBITDA $ 70,716     $ 102,884     $ 20,119     $ 28,881  
  1. 2017 amounts have been adjusted to reflect certain immaterial prior period adjustments related to the allocation of income and recorded book equity balances between non-controlling interests and Spark Energy, Inc. stockholders. Please see our Form 10-K for our audited financial statements and Notes thereto which include a discussion of these immaterial adjustments.
  2. Represents the change in the value of the Tax Receivable Agreement liability due to U.S. Tax Reform.


  Year Ended December 31,   Quarter Ended December 31,
(in thousands) 2018   2017   2018   2017
Reconciliation of Adjusted EBITDA to net cash provided by operating activities:              
Net cash provided by operating activities $ 57,689     $ 62,131     $ 15,836     $ 1,869  
Amortization of deferred financing costs (1,291 )   (1,035 )   (48 )   (285 )
Bad debt expense (10,135 )   (6,550 )   (1,655 )   (3,114 )
Interest expense 9,410     11,134     2,087     2,374  
Income tax expense (1) 2,077     38,765     1,475     33,500  
Change in Tax Receivable Agreement liability (2)     (22,267 )       (22,267 )
Accounts receivable, prepaids, current assets 10,482     31,905     20,122     48,989  
Inventory (674 )   718     (199 )   (1,218 )
Accounts payable and accrued liabilities (5,093 )   (13,672 )   (23,081 )   (21,786 )
Other 8,251     1,755     5,582     (9,181 )
Adjusted EBITDA $ 70,716     $ 102,884     $ 20,119     $ 28,881  
Cash Flow Data:              
Cash flows provided by operating activities $ 57,689     $ 62,131     $ 15,836     $ 1,869  
Cash flows used in investing activities $ (24,036 )   $ (77,558 )   $ (343 )   $ (19,070 )
Cash flows (used in) provided by financing activities $ (13,434 )   $ 25,886     $ (8,651 )   $ 35,371  
  1. 2017 amounts have been adjusted to reflect certain immaterial prior period adjustments related to the allocation of income and recorded book equity balances between non-controlling interests and Spark Energy, Inc. stockholders. Please see our Form 10-K for our audited financial statements and Notes thereto which include a discussion of these immaterial adjustments.
  2. Represents the change in the value of the Tax Receivable Agreement liability due to U.S. Tax Reform.

The following table presents a reconciliation of Retail Gross Margin to operating income (loss) for each of the periods indicated.


APPENDIX TABLE A-3
RETAIL GROSS MARGIN RECONCILIATION
(in thousands)
(unaudited)

  Year Ended December 31,   Quarter Ended 31,
(in thousands) 2018   2017   2018   2017
Reconciliation of Retail Gross Margin to Operating Income:              
Operating income $ (3,654 )   $ 102,420     $ (11,795 )   $ 59,752  
Depreciation and amortization 52,658     42,341     12,861     11,906  
General and administrative 111,431     101,127     27,909     31,722  
Less:              
Net asset optimization (expenses) revenues 4,511     (717 )   713     (36 )
Net, Losses (gains) on non-trading derivative instruments (19,571 )   5,588     (17,348 )   39,734  
Net, Cash settlements on non-trading derivative instruments (9,614 )   16,508     (4,560 )   (2,508 )
Retail Gross Margin $ 185,109     $ 224,509     $ 50,170     $ 66,190  
Retail Gross Margin - Retail Electricity Segment $ 124,668     $ 158,468     $ 32,055     $ 42,339  
Retail Gross Margin - Retail Natural Gas Segment $ 60,441     66,041     $ 18,115     $ 23,851  


Contact: Spark Energy, Inc.

Investors:

Christian Hettick, 832-200-3727

Media:

Kira Jordan, 832-255-7302

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